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PET560_1

Improved Recovery Methods

This is the study programme for 2019/2020. It is subject to change.


Improved oil recovery (IOR) techniques are employed extensively in the oil industry to minimize the amount of oil that is left behind at the time of an oil-field's abandonment. There are several such methods available today which are employed after primary oil production and/or secondary water injection schemes to achieve higher oil recovery factors. Each oil field presents a unique opportunity and case that requires a thorough assessment and evaluation of several factors such as for example formation (rock and fluids) properties, field characteristics (depth, location, size, etc.), field operational restrictions, availability and costs of injection fluids as well as their interaction with the formation rock and fluids that an engineer must consider, screen, study and analyze before deciding, based on sound technical and economic criteria, which IOR method should apply to maximize oil recovery from a given asset.

Learning outcome

Knowledge:
The course provides an introduction to techniques, principles and effectiveness of various improved oil recovery methods. Specific emphasis is placed on improved oil recovery process mechanisms and factors influencing both microscopic and macroscopic oil recovery performance prior to embarking on presenting the most relevant methods. Analytical and laboratory evaluation techniques used in conjunction with reservoir simulation studies to evaluate the viability and effectiveness of a given improved oil recovery method in maximizing the oil recovery factor are discussed and examples demonstrating their applicability are presented. Various water- and gas-based improved oil recovery methods are covered in the course including polymer, miscible and immiscible gas injection, surfactant and alkaline flooding as well as thermal recovery processes.
Skills:
After completing this course the student should be able to have a thorough understanding and working knowledge of the most important aspects of the currently employed improved oil recovery techniques to increase oil recovery. A special focus of the course will be on processes which are more relevant and applicable to the North Sea oil fields.
Competence:
Improved oil recovery techniques are employed extensively in the oil industry to minimize the amount of oil that is left behind at the time of an oil-field's abandonment. There are several such methods available today which are employed after primary oil production and/or secondary water injection schemes to achieve higher oil recovery factors. Each oil field presents a unique opportunity and case that requires a thorough assessment and evaluation of several factors such as for example formation (rock and fluids) properties, field characteristics (depth, location, size, etc.), field operational restrictions, availability and costs of injection fluids as well as their interaction with the formation rock and fluids that an engineer must consider, screen, study and analyze before deciding, based on sound technical and economic criteria, which improved oil recovery method should apply to maximize oil recovery from a given asset.

Contents

Introduction Oil target Mobile versus immobile oil IOR methods for improving oil recovery Preliminary field screening for EOR applications Microscopic Sweep Efficiency Capillary and viscous forces Formation wettability Phase trapping mechanisms – Pore-doublet model Mobilization of trapped oil Capillary number and CDC curves Macroscopic Sweep Efficiency Experimental and numerical studies Correlations and analytical methods to estimate macroscopic (areal, vertical and volumetric) sweep efficiencies Immiscible Water and Gas Injection Analytical models (Buckley-Leverett method) to evaluate immiscible fluid displacement performance Vertical oil displacement (gravity segregation, pseudo-pressure functions) Critical injection rate Immiscible oil displacement in layered systems with and without fluid crossflow Waterflood design Low-salinity water injection Polymer Flooding Structure of polymers Polymer bulk rheology Polymer stability Polymer rheology in porous media Polymer/rock interaction (polymer retention, inaccessible pore volume) Oil displacement mechanisms Modeling of polymer flooding Gels Crosslinking chemistry Gelation time Gel strength Gel behavior in porous rock Miscible Gas Displacement Phase behavior Minimum Miscibility Pressure (MMP) Minimum Miscibility Enrichment (MME) Miscibility types (first contact miscibility, multi-contact miscibility, MCM, vaporizing drive, condensing drive) Diffusion-Dispersion Carbon Dioxide Flooding Phase behavior & MMP Miscible displacement CO2 solubility in oil and water phases Water Alternating Gas (WAG) process Other miscible processes (SWAG, FWAG, etc.) Surfactant Flooding Surfactant structure and interfacial tension Surfactant solutions Phase behavior and modeling Immiscible displacement at low interfacial tension Fluid/rock interactions Mass transfer Modeling surfactant flooding Alkaline Flooding Lowering interfacial tension Emulsification Precipitation Ion exchange Wettability alteration Dissolution of minerals Effect on stability and retention of surfactants and polymers Thermal Oil Recovery Hot Fluid (Steam/Water) Injection Temperature effects on oil viscosity, density, heat capacity, thermal conductivity, interfacial tension and wettability Physical mechanisms Heat transfer, heat losses Analytical modeling Implementation Field cases Steam Stimulation Analytical modeling Implementation Insitu Combustion Principles Water fire-flooding Heat balance considerations Main parameters Combustion tube tests Process design

Required prerequisite knowledge

None.

Recommended previous knowledge

PET500 PVT of Petroleum Reservoirs and Fluids, PET510 Computational Reservoir and Well Modeling

Exam

Weight Duration Marks Aid
Lab work, home assignments and final exam1/14 hoursA - FValid calculator.
Lab work, home assignments and final exam 1/1, 4 hours, A - F None permitted
Folder assessment counting 50% of total course grade, including:
Lab report, counting 20% of total grade
Homework assignments, counting 30% of total grade
One written exam counting 50% of total grade
Every part of the folder assessment, in addition to the written exam, must be graded E or better to pass the course.
If a student fails or want to improve the grade, she/he have to take the whole course again the following year

Coursework requirements

Exam, Laboratory exercises: Four laboratory-based exercises will be conducted during the semester. Students must turn in their individual reports at the time of the next laboratory exercise. These laboratory exercises are designed to illustrate practical issues, visualize oil displacement results, enhance understanding of theoretical concepts and/or integrate analytical evaluation techniques with laboratory analyses methods. There will be two homework assignments.

Course teacher(s)

Course coordinator
Ingebret Fjelde
Course teacher
Jostein Djuve
Head of Department
Alejandro Escalona Varela

Method of work

The theoretical and analytical portions of the course are covered during scheduled eight/six-hour weekly lectures. The four laboratory exercises will be performed at designated times during the semester and at a time arranged that is suitable to all students. Mandatory work demands (such as hand in assignments, laboratory assignments, class projects, etc) must be approved by the subject teacher three weeks prior to officially announced examination date. Student class attendance and participation during lectures are strongly encouraged. Homework assignments will be given by the course instructor during the semester to enable the students to work on both theoretical and numerical applications of new notions and techniques thus enabling them to strengthen their understanding of the course materials covered during lecturing.

Overlapping courses

Course Reduction (SP)
Enhanced oil recovery (MPE330_1) 5

Open to

Petroleum Engineering - Master of Science Degree Programme
Petroleum Engineering - Master`s Degree programme in Petroleum Engineering, 5 years

Course assessment

Standard UiS protocol

Literature

Textbook: Enhanced Oil Recovery, D.W. Green G.P. Willhite, SPE Textbook Series, Vol. 6.
Reference Book: Enhanced Oil Recovery, L.W. Lake; Prentice Hall. Complementary papers will only be posted on Canvas for subjects relevant to the course topics. Laboratory manual.


This is the study programme for 2019/2020. It is subject to change.

Sist oppdatert: 14.11.2019

History