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Communication and Decision making in Pre Hospital Emergency Medical Care

This is the study programme for 2019/2020. It is subject to change.

This course aims to increase student proficiency in communication and decision making, to develop their ability to reflect on prehospital emergency situations, and additionally, to develop an awareness of human dignity and integrity during critical incidents.

Learning outcome

A candidate who has completed this course should have the following learning outcomes defined in terms of knowledge, skills and general competence:
The candidate can...
  • Critically appraise key knowledge in communication, related to human factors, decision making and management in pre-hospital emergencies.
  • Understand how communication and ethical knowledge is performed within the team and related to patient and relatives/others in an emergency situation.

The candidate can...
  • Critically evaluate human factors contributing to the critical incidents and describe the application of crew resource management techniques to minimize future risks.
  • Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of multi-organizational working, specifically in relation to management, decision making, communication and team working.

General Competence
The candidate can...
  • Demonstrate the ability to apply professional communication related to patients, next of kin and others involved in critical incidents.
  • Display the ability and willingness to collaborate inter professionally.


  • Communication and collaboration
  • Intercultural communication
  • Ethics and values in communication
  • Human vision/ dignity
  • Management and Crew resource management techniques
  • Decision making
  • Evaluation and reflection

Required prerequisite knowledge



Weight Duration Marks Aid
Home exam, 3000 words (+/- 10%)1/114 daysA - F

Coursework requirements

Reflection paper, 80% class attendance

Course teacher(s)

Study Program Director
Per Kristian Hyldmo
Course coordinator
Ingrid Tjoflåt , Britt Sætre Hansen

Method of work

The teaching will be arranged in concentrated on-campus modules . The teaching and learning style is interactive and reflective, using presentations and dialogue/discussions, simulation and group work drawing on both the expert teachers and the experience of the student.

Open to

Prehospital Critical Care (PHCC) Emergency Medical Care - Master Degree Program

Course assessment

Student evaluation of this course will be conducted in accordance with faculty requirements.


Reading list may be subject to change, and an updated reading list will be available when the module starts
Beauchamp, Tom L. & Childress, James F. (2012): Principles of Biomedical Ethics (Seventh Edition), p.?. Oxford University Press. New York. ISBN: 9780199924585, chapter 4 - 7 ( 180 pages)
Flin R., O`Connor P., Crichton ( 2008) Safety at the sharp end. Ashgate Publishing Limited. ISBN 978-0-7546-4598-6 , ( 300 pages)
Løgstrup, K. E. (1997). The fact which is the source of the silent demand. In The Ethical Demand. Notre Dame, Ill: University of Notre Dame Press . Chapter : 2 ( 8-22)
Skovholt, Thomas M., & Trotter-Mathison, Michelle J. (2011). The resilient practitioner: burnout prevention and self-care strategies for counselors, therapists, teachers, and health professionals. New York: Routledge , Chapter 3 - Cycle of caring, 20 pages
Agledahl, KM; Gulbrandsen, P; Førde, R; and Wifstad Å. (2011). Courteous but not curious: how doctors' politeness masks their existential neglect
Berlin JM, Carlström ED. ( 2008) The 90-second collaboration: a critical study of collaboration exercises at extensive accident sites. Journal of contingencies and crisis management.16(4):177-185.
Braut GS, Rake EL, Aanestad R, Njå O. (2012). Risk images as basis for decisions related to provision of public services. Risk management, Volume 14, Number 1, pp. 60-76.
Förde, Reidun, & Aasland, Olaf Gjerlöw. (2013). Moral distress and professional freedom of speech among doctors., Tidsskrift for Den Norske Legeforening 133, pages 1310 - 1314
Honneth, Axel, & Margalit, Avishai. (2001). Recognition. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, Supplementary Volumes, 75, 111-139. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/4107035
Kietzmann D., Hannig C., Schmidt S. (2015) Migrants' and professionals' views on culturally sensitive pre-hospital emergency care. Social Science & Medicine 138, 234-240
Kietzmann D, Wiehn S., Kehl D., Knuth D, Schmidt S. ( 2016) Migration background and overall satisfaction with pre-hospital emergency care .Applied Nursing Research 29 , 96-100
Nordby H. (2014) Ethics in Paramedic Services: Patients' right to make their own choices in a prehospital setting, Journal of Clinical Research and Bioethics, 5, 171.
Nordby H. (2015 ) The importance of reliable information exchange in emergency practices: A misunderstanding that was uncovered before it was too late. BMC Medical ethics 16.
Nordby H. & Nøhr Ø. (2008) Communication in an emergency setting involving persons in crisis. Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine, 5.
Nordby H. & Nøhr Ø (2009)Interactive medical emergency communication involving persons in crisis. Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, 7.
Nordby H. & Nøhr Ø (2011)Care and empathy in ambulance services: paramedics' experiences of communicative challenges in transports of patients with prolonged cancer. Journal of communication in health care, 3-4.
Nordby H. & Nøhr Ø. (2011) The ethics of resuscitation: How do paramedics experience ethical dilemmas when faced with cancer patients with cardiac arrest? Prehospital and disaster medicine, 4.
Nordby H. (2015) Management in Ambulance services: Communicative challenges. Journal of Medical Practice Management, 4.
Nordby H. (2015) Communicative management in Ambulance Services: A study of interaction between station managers and paramedics working in front-line units. Journal of Medical Practice Management, 5.
Nordby H. (2015) Prehospital management: Limits and possibilities .Journal of Medical Practice Management, 6.
Olsen Ø. E., Husebø Eikeland S, Qvindesland SA, Lorentzen H ( 2015) Redefining clinical leadership for team course development , Journal of Hospital Administration. Vol 4, No 5 (52 - 60) , doi : 10.5430/jha.v4n5p52
Rall M.& Dieckmann ( 2005) Crisis resource management to improve patient safety. Euroanestesia. Available at : https://www.guysandstthomas.nhs.uk/resources/education-training/sail/reading/crisis-mgt-pt-safety.pdf
Rimstad R, Njå O, Rake EL, Braut GS. (2014). Incident command and information flows in a large-scale emergency operation. Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, Volume 22, Number 1, pp. 29-38.
Vardaman J.M. (2011) Beyond communication: The role of the standardized protocols in a changing health care environment. Health Care Manager Rev. 37(1) 88-97
Weick, K. E., K. M. Sutcliffe, D. Obstfeld. 2005. Organizing and the process of sensemaking. Organ. Sci. 16(4) 409-42

This is the study programme for 2019/2020. It is subject to change.

Sist oppdatert: 25.08.2019