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Inclusive Education

This is the study programme for 2019/2020. It is subject to change.

This module is a mandatory part of the course and is divided in two parts:
A.) Introduction to Norwegian education which provides information about education in Norway.
B.) Inclusive education offering comparative understanding of the Norwegian approach
The introduction part provides foreign students some knowledge about the education system and experiences with the Norwegian approach to outdoor education. It creates a background for all the other modules and a possibility to enhance the student's reflexive competence.
The inclusive education part consists of lectures, group work, and 5 full days of school-based practice during which students conduct a small research assignment. The module is designed to provide comparative knowledge and understanding of inclusive education in Norway from an international perspective.

Learning outcome

After finishing this module the student should be able to
  • Describe the educational system and approach in Norway
  • Reflect on educational approaches in a comparative perspective
  • Define inclusive education
  • Describe and evaluate characteristics of inclusive education related to classroom practices in Norwegian schools
  • Discuss adapted education and differentiation
  • Describe official Norwegian policy on inclusive education, including anti-bullying initiatives


  • Official Norwegian policy on inclusive education
  • Educational system and -traditions in Norway
  • Outdoor education: Learning outside the classroom, ideas and practice
  • Inclusive education: Conceptual ambiguities and historical developments
  • Inclusive education / special education
  • Inclusive classrooms: Adapted education and differentiation
  • Learning and participation in schools
  • An organization-theory approach on inclusion - dilemmas and challenges
  • National anti-bullying initiatives in Norway

Required prerequisite knowledge



Weight Duration Marks Aid
Written assignment1/1 A - F
Final assessment consists of the assignment on Inclusive Education linked to theoretical perspectives and experiences from school-based practice.
Students are required to reflect upon including and excluding processes observed in the school/kindergarten where the students undergo fieldwork, as these processes are described in the literature. Students are also encouraged, where relevant, to compare their experiences concerning inclusive educational practices and policy in Norway, with educational practices in their home country.
The assignment on Inclusive Education can be conducted individually (2800 +- 10% words) or in pairs (4000 +- 10% words).
The assignment is assessed on a scale from A-F, where A-E denotes pass (A is the highest achievement) and F denotes fail. If students do the assignment in pairs, the awarded mark will apply to both students.

Coursework requirements

Assignment, Attendance, minimum 80%

Attendance of 80 % in lectures, seminars and school placement is compulsory for this unit.

All students have to submit an assignment (1000 -1200 words), in which they summarize and reflect on their experiences and professional development as student teachers in Norway.

Course teacher(s)

Course teacher
Tarja Irene Tikkanen
Course coordinator
Zahra Esmaeeli
Programme coordinator
Inger Marie Øglænd , Olav Kylland

Method of work

The module is organised through lectures, group work and student presentations, as well as a 1 week school placement (in kindergarten/ primary or lower secondary school) and a small research assignment. We expect active participation in classroom activities and group work. Students will also make comparisons of teaching and learning approaches of their home countries with the Norwegian system. The Norwegian approach to outdoor education will be illustrated during workshops in a thematic week.

Course assessment

Student evaluation.


Introduction to Norwegian education

Education system in Norway https://webgate.ec.europa.eu/fpfis/mwikis/eurydice/index.php/Norway:Overview

Hansen, A. (2008). Education in Norway – Equality, Nature and Knowledge. In E. Magerø & B. Simonsen (eds.) Norway: Society and Culture. Kristianand: Portal forlag.

Little, H. & Eager, D. (2010). Risk, challenge and safety: implications for play quality and playground design. European Early Childhood Education Research Journal Vol. 18, No 4. pp 497-513.

Lysklett, O. et al (2007). Temahefte om natur og miljø. Oslo: Kunnskapsdepartementet. (48 pages). This Compendium on Nature and Environment is translated to English and will be provided in the digital compendium.

Nilsen, A.C. (2008) Trends in the Development of Norwegian Childhood. In E. Magerø & B. Simonsen (eds.) Norway: Society and Culture. Kristianand: Portal forlag.

Norwegian Directorate of Education and Training: The Education Mirror Facts and analysis of kindergarten, primary and secondary education in Norway. http://utdanningsspeilet.udir.no/2016/en/

Repstad. P. (2008) Norway – An Egaliterian Society? In E. Magerø & B. Simonsen (eds.) Norway: Society and Culture. Kristianand: Portal forlag.

For students of preschool teacher education:

Framework Plan for the Content and Tasks of Kindergarten. http://www.udir.no/Upload/barnehage/Rammeplan/Framework_Plan_for_the_Content_and_Tasks_of_Kindergartens_2011_rammeplan_engelsk.pdf?epslanguage=no

For students teachers of primary and lower secondary education:

Core Curricula and Quality Framework: https://www.udir.no/in-english/Core-Curriculum-in-five-languages/

The Curriculum for Primary and Lower Secondary School: https://www.udir.no/laring-og-trivsel/lareplanverket/finn-lareplan/#&english

B.) Inclusive education

Ainscow, M. & Miles, S. (2008). Making Education for All inclusive: where next? Prospects 28, 15-34.

Bruin, M. & Ohna, S. E. (2012). Alternative courses in upper secondary vocational education and training: Students’ narratives on hopes and failures. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 17 (10), 1089-1105.

Flem, A., Moen, T., Gudmunnsdottir, S. (2004). Towards inclusive schools: a study of inclusive education in practice. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 19:1, pp. 85-98.

Florian, L. (2014). What counts as evidence of inclusive education? European Journal of Special Needs Education, 29(3), 286–294.

Florian, L., & Black-Hawkins, K. (2011). Exploring Inclusive Pedagogy. British Educational Research Journal, 37(5), 813–828.

Florian, L., & Spratt, J. (2013). Enacting inclusion: a framework for interrogating inclusive practice. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 28(2), 119-135.

Hart, S., Dixon, A., Drummond, M. J. & McIntyre, D. (2004). Learning without limits. New York: Open University Press. Chapter 1 + 17

Haug, P. (2008). Understanding Inclusion in Education. The example of Norway. Unpublished text, Volda University College, Faculty of Education.

Purdue, K. (2006). Children and disability in early childhood education: “special” or inclusive education? Early Childhood Folio, 10: 2006, pp. 12-15.

Spratt, J., & Florian, L. (2015). Inclusive pedagogy: From learning to action. Supporting each individual in the context of ‘everybody’. Teaching and Teacher Education, 49, 89-96.

Stevens, V., De Bourdeaudhuij, I., Van Oost, P. (2001). Anti-bullying interventions at school: aspects of programme adaptation and critical issues for further programme development. Health Promotion International, 16:2, pp. 155-167

All the articles and chapters will be available in a digital compendium.

This is the study programme for 2019/2020. It is subject to change.

Sist oppdatert: 20.11.2019