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Grading system

Grades for undergraduate and postgraduate examinations are awarded according to a graded scale from A (highest) to F (lowest), with E as the minimum pass grade. A pass/fail mark is given for some examinations.

Symbol Description General, qualitative description of valuation criteria
A Excellent An excellent performance, clearly outstanding. The candidate demonstrates excellent judgement and a high degree of independent thinking.
B Very good A very good performance. The candidate demonstrates sound judgement and a very good degree of independent thinking.
C Good A good performance in most areas. The candidate demonstrates a reasonable degree of judgement and independent thinking in the most important areas.
D Satisfactory A satisfactory performance, but with significant shortcomings. The candidate demonstrates a limited degree of judgement and independent thinking.
E Sufficient A performance that meets the minimum criteria, but no more. The candidate demonstrates a very limited degree of judgement and independent thinking.
F Fail A performance that does not meet the minimum academic criteria. The candidate demonstrates an absence of both judgement and independent thinking.